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Mike Petty’s Guides for the Cambridgeshire Researcher

Cambridgeshire Engravers to 1900 – an introduction

This handlist is a guide to the work of those artists and engravers who depicted Cambridge between 1574 and 1900.

When Richard Lyne was commissioned to illustrate John Caius’ history of Cambridge in 1574 he produced an elevated view, with details such as a fisherman and his catch. The following year his work was copied and redrawn; the same fisherman is now seen from the rear – something the new artist could imagine – but he had no guide to the western elevation of King’s College chapel so he made it up. Any subsequent views must be taken with equal caution.

David Loggan has a reputation for accuracy in his Cantabrigia Illustrata, a series of architectural views of the colleges in 1690. But of his view of St Catharine’s he wrote that ‘the remains and ruins of the old college buildings were a sight too ugly to appear as a picture among the other colleges’. So he drew only the most recent buildings as well as those actually planned but not then finished – or ever completed.

Amongst published books of views are Ackermann’s History of the University of Cambridge, its Colleges, Halls and Public Buildings of 1815. It featured sixty-four topographical views in colour by a team which included Augustus Pugin, Frederick Mackenzie and William Westall, the finest exponents of their art. Cambridge artists such as the Harradens and Storers could not match them with their own volumes. But Richard Newby combined the architectural draughtsmanship of F. Mackenzie with the engraving skill of John Le Keux to produce views hailed as "decidedly superior to any hitherto published”. He also had the backing of William Wilkins, the architect of much of the new buildings in progress. It was ". The illustrations were published under the title "Memorials of Cambridge" issued in parts between 1837 and 1842

But the principal series of large engravings to be issued throughout this period were the Cambridge University Almanack prints issued annually from 1801 to 1855 including work by Joshua Baldrey, B. Rudge & J. Burford. There are however various other illustrators, including Joseph Murray Ince who produced a range of engravings of both town and gown, exteriors and interiors for ‘The Cambridge Portfolio’ published in 1838 by the Rev J.J. Smith, whilst Rock & Co issued thousands of engravings of Cambridge from 1851 onwards.

Two Cambridge artists William Beales Redfarn and Robert Farren produced volumes depicting town buildings threatened with demolition whilst a number of national illustrated journals featured Cambridge from time to time, chief being the Illustrated London News.

These and many more are preserved in the Cambridgeshire Collection in Lion Yard Library, Cambridge where there are detailed catalogues that will guide you to illustrations of places and subjects no matter where they appear.

The dates indicate a decade during which they principally illustrated Cambridge scenes.

 
Ackermann

Ackermann, Rudolph (1810)
Opened a print shop in the Strand in 1795 where he established a lithographic press and issued an astonishing range of illustrated volumes covering the Arts, Literature and Fashion. In 1815 he produced a ‘History of the University of Cambridge, its Colleges, Halls and Public Buildings’. Its two volumes of text were illustrated by sixty-four topographical views in colour by a team which included Augustus Pugin, Frederick Mackenzie and William Westall, the finest exponents of their art.

Baldrey, Joshua Kirby (1800)
A name well-known in Cambridge artistic circles from 1782 to 1811. He had premises opposite the Senate House from which he worked as portrait painter, drawing master and engraver. In May 1809 published his masterpiece - a view of the East window of King's college chapel. Despite his fame he died penniless at Hatfield in 1828. His work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Backhouse, R (1830)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Barker, H.A. (1810)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Bartlett, W (1820)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Bell, I.A. (1840)
Work features in Le Keux’s ‘Memorials’, qv

Buck, Samuel (1730)
Journeyed throughout Britain with his brother Nathaniel, depicted Cambridge Castle & School of Pythagoras in 1730s

Building News (1860)
Architectural magazine founded in 1854, featured several Cambridge buildings

Bunbury, Henry (1770)
Attended St Catharine’s college and acquired a reputation as a humorous draughtsman with views of ungainly dons and awkward undergraduates – a view of his Pot Fair was engraved by Thomas Rowlandson qv

Burford, J (1810)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Burford, R (1810)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Buss, Robert William (1840)
Issued a series of engravings in 1842 including University students playing cricket on Parker’s Piece

Cambridge Advertiser (1840)
Newspaper published between 1839 & 1850 with a large illustrated supplement on Trinity College in 1843

Cambridge Guide, (1830)
Illustrated with ‘engravings of superior style designed and executed by eminent artists’. Other guidebooks also include engravings

 
Cambridge University Almanack

Cambridge University Almanack (1800-50)
A major series of large prints, issued annually from 1801 to 1855 including work by Baldrey, B. Rudge, & J. Burford. They are listed in Willis and Clark ‘Architectural history of the University of Cambridge’ vol.1

Challis, Ebeneezer (1840)
Engraved views of work on new University Library, proposals for Fitzwilliam Museum and Round Church, 1840s. Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Clarke, John S. (1890)
Drawings appeared almost every week in Cambridge Express between 1892 & 1896 & were published in two series of “An artists rambles in Cambridgeshire”. He also illustrated the Ely Diocesan Remembrancer & produced advertisements for Kidman’s Builders.

Cole, William (1760)
Clergyman and antiquarian, produced hundreds of original sketches of churches, memorials and buildings. Many reproduced in ‘Monumental inscriptions and coats of arms from Cambridgeshire’ and ‘William Cole of Milton’ by W.M. Palmer.

Day, William & Haghe, Louis (1830)
Eminent lithographers, produced print of Addenbrooke's Hospital in 1835

Dighton, Robert (1800)
Worked from London producing satirical portraits, including several from Cambridge under the title ‘A view from …’ – the Peterhouse view is Rev Francis Barnes. He also illustrated Richard Vaughan the stagecoach driver and others. Dighton blotted his copy book by stealing etchings from the British Museum and leaving a copy in its place but was the leading caricaturist of his day; he died in London in 1814

Dodgson, G (1840)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Farren Robert (1880)
Born in Willow Walk, Newmarket Road in 1832 he worked as a heraldic artist & in the Geological Museum mounting specimen and labelling cases. He published books of engravings of the area including ‘The Granta and the Cam’ (1880) & ‘Cambridge and neighbourhood’ (1881). In 1885 he moved to Scarborough but came back after eight years, dying in 1912.

Gradus ad Cantabrigian (1820)
‘A new guide to the academical customs’ issued in 1824, illustrated by six engravings including ‘The Battle of Peas Hill’

Graphic (1880)
An illustrated newspaper featuring engravings by the best artists; featured Cambridge in October 1887

Greig, John (1810)
Engraver & painter whose work features in the ‘Antiquarian Itinerary’. An associate of J.S. Storer; illustrated G. Dyer’s ‘History of the University and College of Cambridge’, 1813

Hamond, John (1590)
A surveyor, he produced an accurate measured map of Cambridge in 1592 presenting a bird’s-eye view of the town with the central area being especially clear. It has been reproduced in the Cambridgeshire Records Society portfolio of old Cambridge plans.

Harraden, Richard (1820) & Richard Bankes

A well-established artist and engraver published a series of views of University of little merit; then with his son R.B. Harraden junior produced a series of books including ‘Description of Cambridge’ (1800), ‘Cantabrigia Depicta’ (1809) & ‘Illustrations of the university of Cambridge’ (1830)

Hollis, G (1820)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Huber, V.A (1840)
Published an account of the English Universities which was translated into English in 1843; it contains a number of unusual illustrations: Geological museum, signing exam book & Billiards

Humphrey, H (1800)
Published ‘The Rake's Progress at the University’ in 1806 depicting some of the mistakes that could blight the life of a new Undergraduate.

Illustrated London News (1850)
Started in May 1842 to “bring the broad and palpable delineations of wood engraving” to bear on every subject, included several Cambridgeshire scenes

 
Ince

Ince, Joseph Murray, (1830)
In Cambridge from 1826 & commissioned to produce a range of engravings of both town and gown, exteriors and interiors for ‘The Cambridge Portfolio’ (1838)

Kearnan, T (1820)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Lamborn, P.S (1790)
Produced engravings of views of the Backs, 1790s

Le Keux, John (1830)

 
Le Keux

Engraver whose work features in ‘Memorials of Cambridge’. In 1827 Richard Newby announced a series of views of the public buildings of' Cambridge combining the architectural draughtsmanship of F. Mackenzie with the engraving skill of John Le Keux. He also had the backing of William Wilkins, the architect of much of the new buildings in progress. The engravings, each 18 x 12 inches sold for between one & three guineas with the first due in August 1827 & others published at 6 monthly intervals. They were hailed by as ‘decidedly superior to any hitherto published’. The illustrations were subsequently published with text as ‘Memorials of Cambridge’ which was issued in parts between 1837 and 1842 and reproduced in a new edition by Charles Henry Cooper between 1860 & 1866.

Loggan, David (1680)
Danish engraver who came to Cambridge and compiled a series of detailed architectural views of colleges, starting with St Catharine’s college in 1676. The whole set was issued as ‘Cantabrigia Illustrata’ in 1690. They are recognised as accurate. They contain many details of everyday life such as barges & horsemen as well as views across the open fields.

Lyne, Richard (1570)
Commissioned to produce a map of Cambridge from the south to illustrate a history by John Caius, published 1574. He was paid 30s to engrave it, with an extra two shillings for colouring it in. It shows colleges and buildings and is the first contemporary picture of Cambridge. It has been reproduced in the Cambridgeshire Records Society portfolio of old Cambridge plans.

Mackenzie, F (1810)
One of the ‘men of distinction and architectural draftsmen’ whose work appears in Ackermann & Le Keux’s ‘Memorials’ q.v. His architectural draftsmanship was hailed “as perfect as the almost unsurpassable state of the art will permit”.

Malton, Thomas (1790)
“An artist of superior excellence” was commissioned by David Hood in 1798 to produce work more accurate than that of Richard Harraden

Mason, William (1800)
Produced caricatures of Cambridge people such as Jacob Butler the squire of Barnwell & Jemmy Gordeon in early 1800s

Neale, John Preston (1820)
Depicted Holy Trinity church, 1824, King’s chapel and Senate House; work noted for its accuracy

Pugin, A (1810)
One of the ‘men of distinction and architectural draftsmen’ whose work appears in Ackermann q.v.

Pyne, W.H. (1810
One of the ‘men of distinction and architectural draftsmen’ whose work appears in Ackermann q.v.

Rayner, Louise (1880)
Exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1852 and subsequently settled at Chester where she gave drawing lessons. Painted a view along Kings Parade and another from the market about 1887.

Redfarn, William Beales (1870)
An antiquarian with his private museum, founder of the New Theatre. He studied art with J.F. Herring & in 1875 started to record the ancient buildings of Cambridge that he feared would be lost, publishing a volume of ‘Old Cambridge’ in 1876 & ‘Ancient wood and iron work in Cambridge’ in 1887

Relhan, Richard (1820)
Watercolour artist who made original paintings of many Cambridgeshire churches and scenes; his work is housed in the Cambridge University Library Map Room and reproduced in Alison Taylor’s ‘Archaeology of Cambridgeshire’ vol.1 & 2. There is a Hand-list of the water-colour drawings relating to Cambridgeshire made by G.M. Benton

Rock & Co (1850)
A national company which issued scores of engravings of Cambridge in booklets from 1851 onwards

Roget, John Lewis (1850)
Son of the Thesaurus compiler who came up to Trinity in 1845; he compiled a ‘Cambridge Scrapbook’ – a pictorial record of the manners, customs and pastimes in 1859

Rowlandson, Thomas (1800)
Born in 1756, son of a London tradesman and became a Royal Academician. He produced a number of views including Market Hill in 1801 which are noted for their humorous interpretations and characters

Rudge, B (1840)
Work featured amongst Cambridge University Almanack prints qv

Storer, James and Henry (1830)
Issued a series of engravings between 1827 & 1837. James was born in Cambridge in 1771 and made his name drawing and engraving scenes of Old England with John Greig. Went into partnership with his eldest son Henry issuing four volumes on the Cathedrals of Great Britain which was hailed as the most accurate views of these buildings in existence. In 1827 announced the publication of their first four plates on Cambridge. They produced volumes entitled ‘Illustrations of Cambridge’ 1834, ‘Cantabrigia Illustrata’, 1835 and views of King’s college chapel, Trinity college and college gateways (1837)

Toussaint, Henri (1880)
Paris-born artist, engravings published in John Willis Clark's ‘Brief Historical and Descriptive Notes on Cambridge’ published 1881

Westall, William (1800)
One of the ‘men of distinction and architectural draftsmen’ whose work appears in Ackermann q.v.

Whymper, Edward (1870)
Wood engraver who illustrated books for the S.P.C.K. & Religious Tract Society. Illustrations appear in ‘Oxford and Cambridge’ by Frederick Arnold, issued 1873.

I have my own copies of many such engravings; please feel free to contact me for any assistance.

M.J. Petty MBE, MA, ALA,
13a Reads Street, Stretham,
Ely, Cambs. CB6 3JT
phone 01353 648106  
E-mail mikepetty13a@gmail.com

January 2010

This guide is one of a series, please E-mail for a complete list

 


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